In the early 20th century, a new movement of Native American painting emerged in the Pueblo communities of the Southwestern United States. Encouraged by local anthropologists and teachers to record past and current scenes of their daily life on paper, the artists found inspiration in the centuries-old tradition of Pueblo painting found in pottery, murals, and archaeological remains.
The earliest Pueblo artists were self-taught and struggled for recognition from the local and national art market. In the 1930s, the formation of the Studio at the Santa Fe Indian School formalized the training of generations of Native painters. The resulting works were dynamic, colorful, and decidedly modern.